סקר
איך אתה לומד דף יומי?






 

Steinsaltz

and his teacher established it in his name. Consequently, it is counted as one of Rabban Yoḥanan ben Zakkai’s ordinances.

MISHNA: The order of the blessings of the additional prayer on Rosh HaShana is as follows: One recites the blessing of the Patriarchs, the blessing of God’s Mighty Deeds, and the blessing of the Sanctification of God’s Name, all of which are recited all year long. And one includes the blessing of Kingship, containing many biblical verses on that theme, with them, i.e., in the blessing of the Sanctification of God’s Name, and he does not sound the shofar after it.

Next, one adds a special blessing for the Sanctification of the Day, and sounds the shofar after it; followed by the blessing of Remembrances, which contains many biblical verses addressing that theme, and sounds the shofar after it; and recites the blessing of Shofarot, which includes verses that mention the shofar, and sounds the shofar after it. And he then returns to the regular Amida prayer and recites the blessing of God’s Service and the blessing of Thanksgiving and the Priestly Blessing. This is the statement of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Nuri.

Rabbi Akiva said to him: If one does not sound the shofar for the blessing of Kingship, why does he mention it? Rather, the order of the blessings is as follows: One recites the blessing of the Patriarchs and that of God’s Mighty Deeds and that of the Sanctification of God’s Name. He subsequently includes the blessing of Kingship in the blessing of the Sanctification of the Day, and sounds the shofar. Next he recites the blessing of Remembrances, and sounds the shofar after it, and the blessing of Shofarot and sounds the shofar after it. He then recites the blessing of God’s Service and the blessing of Thanksgiving and the Priestly Blessing.

GEMARA: The mishna taught that Rabbi Akiva said to him: If one does not sound the shofar for the blessing of Kingship, why does he mention it? The Gemara expresses surprise at this question: Why does he mention it? The Merciful One states that one should mention it. It is a mitzva to recite the blessing of Kingship, regardless of the sounding of the shofar. Rather, this is what Rabbi Akiva meant: Why does one mention ten verses of Kingship, as in the other blessings? Let him recite nine verses or fewer. Since the blessing is different in that it is not followed by shofar blasts, let it also be different with regard to the number of verses it includes.

§ The Sages taught in a baraita: From where is it derived that one recites the blessing of the Patriarchs? As it is stated: “Ascribe to the Lord, O you sons of the mighty” (Psalms 29:1), which is interpreted to mean that one should mention before God the greatness of the mighty, i.e., the righteous Patriarchs. And from where is it derived that one recites the blessing of God’s Mighty Deeds? As it is stated: “Ascribe to the Lord glory and strength” (Psalms 29:1). And from where is it derived that one recites the blessing of the Sanctification of God’s Name? As it is stated: “Ascribe to the Lord the glory due to His name; worship the Lord in the beauty of sanctity” (Psalms 29:2).

And from where is it derived that on Rosh HaShana one recites the blessings of Kingship, Remembrances, and Shofarot? Rabbi Eliezer says: As it is written: “In the seventh month, on the first day of the month, you shall have a solemn rest, a memorial of blasts, a sacred convocation” (Leviticus 23:24). This verse is interpreted as follows: “A solemn rest,” this is referring to the blessing of the Sanctification of the Day; “a memorial,” this is Remembrances; “blasts,” this is Shofarot; “a sacred convocation” this means sanctify it by abstaining from performing prohibited labor.

Rabbi Akiva said to Rabbi Eliezer: For what reason isn’t it stated instead that the phrase “solemn rest” teaches that one must rest by abstaining from prohibited labor, as this is the term with which the verse opened first. It stands to reason that the verse would begin with the main issue, i.e., that this day is a Festival on which performing labor is prohibited. Rather, the verse should be explained as follows: “A solemn rest,” sanctify it by abstaining from performing prohibited labor; “a memorial,” this is Remembrances; “blasts,” this is Shofarot; “a sacred convocation,” this is the Sanctification of the Day.

From where is it derived that that one recites the blessing of Kingship? It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: One verse states: “I am the Lord your God” (Leviticus 23:22), which is referring to God’s Kingship over the world; and two verses later it states: “In the seventh month” (Leviticus 23:24). This teaches that God’s Kingship must be mentioned on Rosh HaShana.

Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda says: This is not necessary, as the verse states: “Also in the day of your gladness, and in your appointed seasons, and in your New Moons, you shall blow with the trumpets over your burnt-offerings, and over the sacrifices of your peace-offerings; that they may be to you for a remembrance before your God: I am the Lord your God” (Numbers 10:10). As there is no need for the verse to state: “I am the Lord your God,” and therefore what is the meaning when the verse states: “I am the Lord your God”? This is a paradigm that in all places where verses of Remembrances are stated, verses of Kingship should be recited with them.

§ The Gemara returns to the issue discussed in the mishna: And where does one recite the Sanctification of the Day? It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: One recites it with the blessing of Kingship, in the fourth blessing. He explains: Just as we find in all other places that the Sanctification of the Day is mentioned in the fourth blessing of the Amida prayer, so too here, it is recited in the fourth blessing.

Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: One recites it together with the blessing of Remembrances, in the fifth blessing. He explains: Just as we find in all other places that the Sanctification of the Day is mentioned in the middle blessing of the Amida prayer, e.g., on Shabbat, when it is the fourth of seven blessings, so too here, it is recited in the middle blessing, which in the case of Rosh HaShana is the fifth blessing, as the Rosh HaShana Amida prayer is comprised of nine blessings.

§ And the baraita relates that when the court sanctified the year in Usha, Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka descended as the prayer leader in the presence of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, and he acted in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Yoḥanan ben Nuri by including the blessing of Kingship in the blessing of the Sanctification of God’s Name. Rabban Shimon said to him: They were not accustomed to act in this manner in Yavne. On the second day, Rabbi Ḥanina, son of Rabbi Yosei HaGelili, descended as the prayer leader, and he acted in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva by including the blessing of Kingship in the blessing of the Sanctification of the Day. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said: This is how they were accustomed to act in Yavne.

The Gemara asks a question concerning this baraita: Is that to say that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva? But didn’t Rabbi Akiva say that one recites the blessing of Kingship with the blessing of the Sanctification of the Day, and Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says that one recites the blessing of the Sanctification of the Day with the blessing of Remembrances? Why then did Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel indicate his agreement with Rabbi Akiva’s practice? Rabbi Zeira said: Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel merely meant to say that he agrees that one sounds the shofar together with the blessing of Kingship, and that this was how they were accustomed to act in Yavne.

The baraita taught that on the second day Rabbi Ḥanina descended as the prayer leader. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of: The second day? If we say that this is referring to the second day of the Festival day of Rosh HaShana, is that to say that they rendered Elul a full month, so that the thirtieth day of Elul was the first day of Rosh HaShana and the first day of Tishrei was the second day? But didn’t Rabbi Ḥanina bar Kahana say: From the days of Ezra onward we have not found that the month of Elul was ever rendered full. If so, it is difficult to believe that a case of this kind occurred in the time of the tanna’im. Rav Ḥisda said: What is the meaning of: The second day? It means on the second day, the next time it was Rosh HaShana, i.e., on Rosh HaShana of the following year.

MISHNA: One does not recite fewer than ten verses in the blessing of Kingship, or fewer than ten verses in the blessing of Remembrances, or fewer than ten verses in the blessing of Shofarot. Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Nuri says: If one recited three from each of them, he has fulfilled his obligation.

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: These ten verses of Kingship, to what do they correspond? Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: They correspond to the ten praises that David said in the book of Psalms. The Gemara asks: There are many more praises than that in the book of Psalms. The Gemara answers that he means those in which it is written by them: “Praise Him with the blast of the shofar (Psalms 150:3). In that chapter the phrase “Praise Him” appears ten times.

Rav Yosef said: The ten verses correspond to the Ten Commandments, which were said to Moses at Sinai. Rabbi Yoḥanan said: They correspond to the ten utterances through which the world was created. The Gemara asks: Which are these ten utterances? The Gemara explains: This is referring to the ten times that the phrase “And He said” appears in the story of Creation in the first two chapters of Genesis.

The Gemara asks: Does it refer to the repetition of the phrase: “And He said” in Genesis? There are only nine such phrases, not ten. The Gemara answers that the phrase “In the beginning” is also considered an utterance, as it is written: “By the word of the Lord were the heavens made” (Psalms 33:6), which indicates that all of creation came into existence through a single utterance, after which all matter was formed into separate and distinct entities by means of the other nine utterances.

§ The mishna taught that Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Nuri says: If one recited three from each of them, he has fulfilled his obligation. A dilemma was raised before the Sages: What is he teaching here? Does Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Nuri mean that one must recite three verses from the Torah, three from the Prophets, and three from the Writings, which are nine in total, and if so the practical difference between the opinions of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Nuri and the first tanna is only one verse? Or perhaps he means that one must recite one verse from the Torah and one from the Prophets and one from the Writings, which are three altogether, and the practical difference between them is a large number of verses, i.e., seven.

The Gemara clarifies this matter: Come and hear a proof, as it is taught in a baraita: One does not recite fewer than ten verses of Kingship, or fewer than ten verses of Remembrances, or fewer than ten verses of Shofarot. And if one recited seven from each of them, he has fulfilled his obligation, as they correspond to the seven firmaments in heaven.

Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Nuri said: One who recites fewer than the requisite ten should not recite fewer than seven, but if he recited three from each of them he has fulfilled his obligation, as they correspond to the Torah, the Prophets, and the Writings. And some say: They correspond to the priests, the Levites, and the Israelites. This indicates that Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Nuri means a total of three verses for each blessing. Rav Huna said that Shmuel said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Nuri.

MISHNA: One does not mention verses of Remembrance, Kingship, and Shofar that have a theme of punishment. When reciting the ten verses, one begins with verses from the Torah and concludes with verses from the Prophets. Rabbi Yosei says: If he concluded with a verse from the Torah, he has fulfilled his obligation.

Talmud - Bavli - The William Davidson digital edition of the Koren No=C3=A9 Talmud
with commentary by Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz Even-Israel (CC-BY-NC 4.0)
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