סקר
איך אתה לומד דף יומי?






 

Steinsaltz

be like you. So it is with you. With what shall I bless you? If I bless you with Torah, you already have Torah; if I bless you with wealth, you already have wealth; if I bless you with children, you already have children. Rather, may it be God’s will that your offspring shall be like you.

§ The Gemara returns to the topic of rain. The Sages taught in a baraita: The first rain [yoreh] is called by this name due to the fact that it instructs [moreh] people to plaster their roofs and to bring in their produce from the fields to their houses and to attend to all their needs in the field before more rain falls. Alternatively, yoreh is referring to the fact that it moistens [marve] the earth and waters it to the depths, as it is stated: “Watering [ravvei] its ridges abundantly, settling down its furrows, You make it soft with showers, You bless its growth” (Psalms 65:11). Alternatively, yoreh means that it falls gently and it does not fall vehemently.

Or perhaps that is not the case; rather, yoreh means that the rain causes the fruit to drop from the trees, washes the seeds away, and washes the trees away in a destructive manner. According to this interpretation, yoreh is related to yeriya, shooting. Therefore the verse states: “Last rain [malkosh]” (Deuteronomy 11:14); just as malkosh refers specifically to rains that are for a blessing, so too, yoreh is referring to rains that are for a blessing. Or perhaps that is not the case; rather, malkosh means that the rain falls so hard [kashe] and vehemently that it knocks down the houses, shatters the trees and brings up the locusts? Therefore, the verse states: “Yoreh,” from which it may be inferred that just as yoreh is for a blessing, so too, malkosh is for a blessing.

And with regard to yoreh itself, from where do we derive that it is referring to rain that falls for a blessing? As it is written: “You children of Zion, be glad and rejoice in the Lord your God, for He has given you the first rain [moreh] in His kindness, and He caused to come down for you the rain, the first rain [moreh] and the last rain [malkosh], in the first month” (Joel 2:23). This verse clearly states that yoreh, also referred to as moreh, fall due to God’s kindness, for a blessing.

The Gemara cites another baraita on the same topic. The Sages taught: The first rain falls in Marḥeshvan and the last rain in Nisan. Do you say that the first rain is in Marḥeshvan and the last rain in Nisan, or perhaps it is only that the first rain falls in Tishrei and the last rain in Iyyar? Therefore, the verse states: “I shall give the rain of your land in its due time” (Deuteronomy 11:14). Its due time is in Marḥeshvan, when rain is needed for the crops to sprout, and in Nisan, to complete the growth of the crops.

The Gemara clarifies the meaning of the word for the last rain [malkosh]. Rav Nehilai bar Idi said that Shmuel said: It is a matter that circumcises [mal] the stubbornness [kashyuteihen] of the Jewish people, i.e., it penetrates to the hearts of the Jewish people, as when rain does not fall in its time, they turn to God in repentance. The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: The last rain is called malkosh because it is a matter that fills out [memalle] produce in its stalks [bekasheha]. Although the stalks already exist from earlier in the year, it is this rain that causes the grain within to swell and fill them. It was taught in a baraita: Malkosh is a matter that comes down on the ears [melilot] and on the stalks [kashin].

The Sages taught in a baraita: The first rain falls in Marḥeshvan and the last rain in Nisan. Do you say that the first rain is in Marḥeshvan, or perhaps it is only in the month of Kislev? The verse states: “I shall give the rain of your land in its due time, the first rain and the last rain” (Deuteronomy 11:14). Just as the last rain falls in its due time, so too, the first rain falls in its due time. And, as previously stated, once Nisan has ended and the rains subsequently fall, this is not a sign of a blessing, but a curse. Likewise, Marḥeshvan is the best time for the first rains to fall.

It is taught in another baraita: The first rain is in Marḥeshvan and the last rain is in Nisan. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: The time of the first rain is in Kislev.

The Gemara asks: Who are the Rabbis cited here? Rav Ḥisda said: It is the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, as it is taught in a baraita: When is the first rainfall? Each opinion cited in the baraita provides a range of dates for when this rainfall is expected. The earliest date on which the first rainfall might occur is on the third of Marḥeshvan, the intermediate time is on the seventh of the month, and the latest is on the seventeenth of the month. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: The earliest that it might fall is on the seventh of Marḥeshvan, the intermediate date is on the seventeenth, and the latest is on the twenty-third.

Rabbi Yosei says: The earliest time for the first rain is on the seventeenth of Marḥeshvan, the intermediate date is on the twenty-third, and the latest is on the New Moon of Kislev. And, so too, Rabbi Yosei would say: The learned individuals who would start to fast for rain at an earlier time than the rest of the community do not start to fast due to a drought until the New Moon of Kislev. Until this date arrives it is not considered a drought, as the first rainfall could still fall in its proper time.

Rav Ḥisda said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei. Ameimar would teach this ruling of Rav Ḥisda in the following language: On the third of Marḥeshvan one starts to request rain; Rabban Gamliel says: On the seventh. With regard to this statement, Rav Ḥisda said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Gamliel.

The Gemara asks: In accordance with whose opinion is that which is taught in a baraita. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: With regard to rains that fell on seven consecutive days, you count them as two separate rainfalls, either as the first and second rainfalls together, or as the second and third rainfalls together. In accordance with whose opinion is this statement? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, as he alone establishes a set interval of seven days between each of the rainfalls. Rav Ḥisda said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei.

With regard to the mention of three rainfalls in the baraita, the Gemara asks: Granted, the time of the first rainfall is significant, as it is the date when one begins to request rain. Likewise, the time of the third rainfall is important, so that one knows when to begin to fast if no rain has fallen by then. However, for what reason is the second rainfall mentioned in the baraita? Rabbi Zeira said: The second rainfall is significant for the issue of vows, as we learned in a mishna:

Talmud - Bavli - The William Davidson digital edition of the Koren No=C3=A9 Talmud
with commentary by Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz Even-Israel (CC-BY-NC 4.0)
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