סקר
כמה זמן אתה כבר גולש בפורטל הדף היומי






 

Steinsaltz

disputants i.e., individuals who dispute Reuven’s ownership of the field, as long as Shimon has not yet taken possession of it, he can renege on the deal. However, once he has taken possession, Shimon cannot renege on the deal, because at that point the seller, Reuven, can say to him: You agreed to a sack [ḥaita] of knots and you received it, i.e., since you purchased the field with no guarantee, you understood that it was a risky investment. The Gemara asks: And from when is Shimon considered to have taken possession of the property? The Gemara answers: It is from when he walks the boundaries of the land to inspect it.

There are those who say that even if Reuven sold him the field with a guarantee, Shimon may not demand a refund immediately when he discovers that there are disputants, as Reuven can say to Shimon: Show me your document of authorization to repossess property from me, and I will pay you.

MISHNA: In the case of one who was married to three women and died and the marriage contract of this wife was for one hundred dinars and the marriage contract of this second wife was for two hundred dinars, and the marriage contract of this third wife was for three hundred, and all three contracts were issued on the same date so that none of the wives has precedence over any of the others, and the total value of the estate is only one hundred dinars, the wives divide the estate equally.

If there were two hundred dinars in the estate, the one whose marriage contract was for one hundred dinars takes fifty dinars, while those whose contracts were for two hundred and three hundred dinars take three dinars of gold each, which are the equivalent of seventy-five silver dinars. If there were three hundred dinars in the estate, the one whose marriage contract was for one hundred dinars takes fifty dinars, the one whose contract was for two hundred dinars takes one hundred dinars, and the one whose contract was for three hundred dinars takes six dinars of gold, the equivalent of one hundred and fifty silver dinars.

Similarly, three individuals who deposited money into a purse, i.e., invested different amounts of money into a joint business venture: If they incurred a loss or earned a profit, and now choose to dissolve the partnership, they divide the assets in this manner, i.e., based upon the amount that each of them initially invested in the partnership.

GEMARA: The Gemara asks about the halakha in the case where the estate has two hundred dinars, in which case the wife whose marriage contract was for one hundred dinars receives fifty dinars. Why should the wife whose marriage contract was for one hundred take fifty? She should have the right to collect only thirty-three and one-third dinars. Since her claim is only for the first hundred dinars, and all three women have an equal right to this first hundred, it stands to reason that it should be divided equally between the three of them.

Shmuel said: This is a case where the wife whose contract was for two hundred writes a document to the wife whose contract was for one hundred dinars: I do not have any legal dealings or involvement with you with regard to the first hundred dinars. Since she relinquished her share in the first hundred dinars, only two claimants remain, the one whose contract was for one hundred and the one whose contract was for three hundred, and they divide it equally between them.

The Gemara asks: If that is so, say the latter clause of that very same statement in the mishna, where it states that the wife whose contract was for two hundred and the one whose contract was for three hundred take three dinars of gold each. This is difficult, because the wife whose contract was for three hundred should be able to say to the wife whose contract was for two hundred: You have removed yourself from the first hundred dinars, and so you have a claim only against the remaining hundred. It should follow that the wife whose contract was for three hundred should take one hundred in total, fifty from the first hundred and fifty from the second hundred, and the one whose contract was for two hundred should receive only fifty, which is half of the second hundred.

The Gemara answers: This is not so, because the wife whose contract was for two hundred can say to the wife whose contract was for three hundred: I have removed myself only from legal dealings or involvement, i.e., I have not completely relinquished my rights to the first hundred; I only agreed not to become involved in litigation with the wife whose marriage contract was for one hundred dinars. However, I maintain my rights to the first hundred dinars with regard to my involvement with you. Consequently, both women have equal rights to the remaining one hundred and fifty dinars, and they divide it equally between them.

The mishna teaches that if there were three hundred dinars in the estate, the money is divided so that the wife whose marriage contract was for one hundred receives fifty dinars, the wife whose contract was for two hundred receives one hundred, and the one whose contract was for three hundred receives one hundred and fifty dinars.

The Gemara asks: Why does the one whose contract was for two hundred receive one hundred dinars? She should have the right to receive only seventy-five. As Shmuel explained above, since she agreed not to litigate with the wife whose contract was for one hundred with regard to the first hundred, it turns out that she has a claim only for one hundred and fifty of the remaining sum, since she clearly has no rights at all to the third hundred; therefore, she should receive half of what she is suing for, which is seventy-five dinars.

The Gemara answers that Shmuel said: The case is where the one whose contract was for three hundred writes a document to the one whose contract was for two hundred and to the one whose contract was for one hundred dinars: I have no legal dealings or involvement with you with regard to the first hundred dinars. Due to this agreement, the first hundred is divided between the wife whose contract was for one hundred and the wife whose contract was for two hundred, with each receiving fifty. The second hundred is divided between the wife whose contract was for two hundred and the wife whose contract was for three hundred. As a result of this, the wife whose contract was for two hundred ends up with a full hundred. The third hundred goes exclusively to the wife whose contract was for three hundred, bringing her total to one hundred and fifty dinars.

Rav Ya’akov of Nehar Pekod said in the name of Ravina: The mishna is not referring to cases where one of the women waived her rights, but rather to cases in which they did not receive the inheritance all at once, but in installments; each time an installment became available, the women repossessed a portion of the estate. The first clause is referring to a case where there were two seizures of property, and the latter clause is similarly referring to a case where there were two seizures of property.

The Gemara explains: The first clause of the mishna, where two hundred dinars were available, is referring to a case where there were two seizures of property, as seventy-five dinars became available at one time and one hundred and twenty-five dinars at another time. When the first installment became available, each of the women had an equal claim to the money and they divided it equally, each receiving twenty-five dinars. When the second installment became available, the woman whose contract was for one hundred dinars had a claim to seventy-five dinars, and received one-third of that amount, bringing her total to fifty. The other women also received an equal share of those seventy-five dinars, and divided equally the remaining fifty dinars, bringing their totals to seventy-five dinars apiece.

The latter clause, where three hundred dinars were available, is also referring to a case where there were two seizures of property, as seventy-five dinars became available to them at one time and two hundred and twenty-five dinars at another time.

It is taught in a baraita: This is the teaching of Rabbi Natan. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: I do not agree with Rabbi Natan’s statement with regard to these women; rather, they divide the estate equally.

It was taught in the mishna: Similarly, three individuals who deposited money into a purse, i.e., invested different amounts in a joint business venture, divide the assets in a similar manner. Shmuel said: In a case of two individuals who deposited money into a purse, where this individual invested one hundred dinars and that individual invested two hundred,

Talmud - Bavli - The William Davidson digital edition of the Koren No=C3=A9 Talmud
with commentary by Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz Even-Israel (CC-BY-NC 4.0)
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