סקר
האם אתה לומד דף יומי עם תוספות?






 

Steinsaltz

It is the root of a bitter vegetable.

Rav Yehuda says: This individual who eats the weight of three shekel of asafoetida on an empty heart, i.e., stomach, his skin sheds due to the fever he contracts. Rabbi Abbahu said: There was an incident in which I was involved, wherein I ate the weight of one shekel of asafoetida, and had I not immediately sat in water to cool off, my skin would have shed. And I thereby fulfilled with regard to myself that which the verse states: “Wisdom preserves the life of him that has it” (Ecclesiastes 7:12).

Rav Yosef says: This individual who eats sixteen eggs and forty nuts and seven fruits of the caper bush, and he drinks a quarter-log of honey in the season of Tammuz, i.e., summer, all on an empty heart, i.e., stomach, his heartstrings are uprooted.

§ The mishna states that if an animal is bitten by a poisonous snake, it is not a tereifa, but it is nevertheless prohibited for consumption due to the hazard it poses. The Gemara recounts the case of a certain young deer that was brought to the house of the Exilarch after slaughter whose hind legs had been cut. Rav inspected it at the convergence of sinews in the thigh and found them intact, and he deemed it kosher. He thought to eat it rare, i.e., lightly roasted. Shmuel said to him: Is the Master not concerned for the possibility that it may have a snakebite?

Rav said to him: What is the rectification for such an uncertainty? Shmuel said to him: We shall set it in a hot oven, as it will then inspect itself. Shmuel set it in the oven on a spit, and the meat fell off the bone bit by bit, a sign that a snake had bitten the young deer. Shmuel recited about Rav the verse: “There shall no mischief befall the righteous” (Proverbs 12:21), since he was saved due to his righteousness. Rav recited about Shmuel the verse: “And no secret causes you trouble” (Daniel 4:6), since he was learned even with regard to such matters.

MISHNA: The signs that indicate that a domesticated animal and an undomesticated animal are kosher were stated in the Torah, and the signs of a kosher bird were not explicitly stated. But the Sages stated certain signs in a bird: Any bird that claws its prey and eats it is non-kosher. Any bird that has an extra digit behind the leg slightly elevated above the other digits, and a crop, which is a sack alongside the gullet in which food is stored prior to digestion, and for which the yellowish membrane inside its gizzard can be peeled, is kosher. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Tzadok, says: Any bird that splits the digits of its feet when standing on a string, placing two digits on one side of the string and two on the other, is non-kosher.

And with regard to grasshoppers, whose signs were also not stated in the Torah, the Sages stated: Any grasshopper that has four legs, and four wings, and two additional jumping legs, and whose wings cover most of its body, is kosher. Rabbi Yosei says: And this applies only if the name of its species is grasshopper. And with regard to fish, the signs are explicitly stated in the Torah: Any fish that has a fin and a scale is kosher; Rabbi Yehuda says: Two scales and one fin. And these are scales: Those that are fixed to its body; and fins are those with which the fish swims.

GEMARA: The mishna states that the signs of a kosher domesticated animal are stated in the Torah. With regard to this, the Sages taught in a baraita: These are the signs of a kosher domesticated animal: “Whatsoever parts the hoof, and is wholly cloven-footed, and chews the cud, among the animals, that may you eat” (Leviticus 11:3). Any animal that chews the cud certainly has no upper front teeth, i.e., incisors, and is kosher.

The Gemara asks: And is this an established principle? But isn’t there a camel, which chews the cud, and has no upper front teeth, and it is still non-kosher (see Leviticus 11:4)? The Gemara responds: A camel has cuspid-like upper incisors, one on each side.

The Gemara asks: But isn’t there a young camel, which does not even have cuspid-like upper incisors and is still non-kosher? And furthermore, aren’t there the hyrax and the hare, which chew the cud, and yet they have upper front teeth, and are non-kosher? And furthermore, one might ask: Are teeth written in the Torah with regard to the kosher status of an animal? Rather, this is what the tanna is saying: Any animal that does not have upper front teeth certainly chews the cud and parts the hoof and is kosher.

The Gemara asks: But why should one inspect the teeth? Let him simply inspect whether the hooves are cloven. The Gemara responds: One inspects the teeth in a case where its hooves were cut and one cannot tell whether they are cloven. And this is in accordance with the statement of Rav Ḥisda, as Rav Ḥisda says: If one was walking in the wilderness, and he found an animal whose hooves were cut, he may inspect its mouth. If it has no upper front teeth, it is certainly kosher; if that is not the case, it is certainly non-kosher, provided that he recognizes that this animal is not a camel, which is non-kosher even though it has no upper incisors. The Gemara asks: Why must one recognize that this is not a camel? A camel has cuspid-like upper incisors. Rather, say: Provided that one recognizes that it is not a young camel, which has no cuspid-like upper incisors.

The Gemara asks: How can one rely only on an inspection of the mouth? Did you not say that there is a young camel, which has no upper incisors but is still non-kosher? If so, perhaps there is also another species that is similar to a young camel and is non-kosher despite having no upper incisors. The Gemara responds that this possibility should not enter your mind, as the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: The verse states: “The camel, because it chews the cud but parts not the hoof, it is unclean” (Leviticus 11:4). The Ruler of His world knows that nothing other than the camel chews the cud and is still non-kosher. Therefore, the verse singles it out with the word “it,” i.e., it and no other.

And Rav Ḥisda says: If one was walking on the road, and he found an animal whose mouth was mutilated, he may inspect its hooves. If its hooves are cloven, it is certainly kosher. If not, it is certainly non-kosher. This applies provided that he recognizes that it is not a pig, which is non-kosher even though it has cloven hooves.

The Gemara asks: But didn’t you say that there is a pig, which has cloven hooves but is still non-kosher? If so, perhaps there is also another species that is similar to a pig. The Gemara responds that this possibility should not enter your mind, as the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: The verse states: “And the pig, because it parts the hoof, and is cloven-footed, but chews not the cud, it is unclean” (Leviticus 11:7). The Ruler of His world knows that nothing other than the pig parts the hoof and is still non-kosher. Therefore, the verse singles it out with the word “it.”

And Rav Ḥisda says: If one was walking in the wilderness, and he found an animal whose mouth was mutilated and whose hooves were cut, he may inspect its flesh. If it runs like warp and woof, i.e., part of it stretches vertically and part of it horizontally, it is certainly kosher; and if not, it is certainly non-kosher, provided that one recognizes that this animal is not a wild donkey, which is non-kosher even though its flesh runs like warp and woof.

The Gemara asks: Didn’t you say that there is a wild donkey, whose flesh runs like warp and woof but who is still non-kosher? If so, perhaps there is also another species that is similar to a wild donkey. The Gemara responds: It is learned as a tradition that there are no similar species. The Gemara asks: And where does one inspect the flesh? Abaye said, and some say that Rav Ḥisda said: At the edges of the tailbone, on the upper thighs.

§ The mishna states: The signs of an undomesticated animal were stated in the Torah. With regard to this, the Sages taught in a baraita: These are the signs of an undomesticated animal. The Gemara interjects: Why does one need signs for an undomesticated animal? An undomesticated animal [ḥayya] is included in the category of a domesticated animal [behema] with regard to signs, as the verse states: “These are the living things [ḥayya] which you may eat among all the animals [behema] that are on the earth. Whatsoever parts the hoof” (Leviticus 11:2–3). Rabbi Zeira said:

Talmud - Bavli - The William Davidson digital edition of the Koren No=C3=A9 Talmud
with commentary by Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz Even-Israel (CC-BY-NC 4.0)
אדם סלומון
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