סקר
איך אתה לומד דף יומי?






 

Steinsaltz

GEMARA: In continuation of the discussion of the mishna, it is taught in a baraita that Beit Hillel said to Beit Shammai: The verse states: “And when the days of her purification are fulfilled, for a son or for a daughter” (Leviticus 12:6). The entire clause: “For a son or for a daughter,” is superfluous and serves to include the night preceding the eighty-first day, i.e., if she has a miscarriage at that point she is obligated to bring another offering.

The Gemara relates: Rabbi Hoshaya would regularly study before bar Kappara. He then left him and came to study before Rabbi Ḥiyya. One day Rabbi Hoshaya encountered bar Kappara and raised the following dilemma before him: With regard to a man who experiences a gonorrhea-like discharge [zav], who is obligated to bring an offering on the eighth day of his purification for three discharges, if he saw another three sightings, i.e., experienced an additional three discharges, on the night preceding the eighth day, what do Beit Hillel say about this matter? Must the zav bring a separate offering for this impurity as he would if he experienced the discharges on the eighth day?

Rabbi Hoshaya explains the sides of the dilemma: Is the reason for the ruling of Beit Hillel that a woman who miscarries on the night preceding the eighty-first day must bring an additional offering due to the derivation from the verse, as it is written: “For a son or for a daughter”? But with regard to a zav who saw three sightings on the night preceding the eighth day, they deem him exempt, as in this case there are no superfluous verses from which one could derive this obligation. Or perhaps there is no difference between these halakhot, and just as a woman who miscarried on the night preceding the eighty-first day after childbirth must bring another offering, as it is the night preceding the day upon which she can bring her offering, a zav must likewise bring another offering for this impurity.

Bar Kappara said to Rabbi Hoshaya: What does the Babylonian, i.e., Rabbi Ḥiyya, who came from Babylonia, say about this matter? Rabbi Hoshaya was silent and did not say anything. Bar Kappara said to him: Do we require the statement of Iyya, i.e., Ḥiyya? Let us review the earlier ruling, as the baraita teaches that the verse that states: “For a son or for a daughter” (Leviticus 12:6), serves to include the night of the eighty-first day. This indicates that the halakha applies only in the case of a woman after childbirth.

The Gemara suggests: Let us say this dilemma is subject to a dispute between tanna’im. With regard to a zav who saw three sightings on the night preceding the eighth day, it is taught in one baraita that he brings an additional offering, and it is taught in another baraita that he does not bring another offering. What, is it not the case that this is a dispute between tanna’im? As, the tanna of this baraita who taught that he brings an additional offering holds that night is not considered part of a date whose time has not yet arrived, and therefore it is as though the eighth day itself has begun; and the tanna of that baraita who taught that he does not bring another offering holds that night is considered part of a date whose time has not yet arrived, and consequently it is not yet time to sacrifice his first offering of a zav.

Rav Huna bar Aḥa said that Rabbi Elazar said: These tanna’im both hold that night is considered part of a date whose time has not yet arrived, and therefore a zav who experienced three discharges on the night preceding the eighth day does not bring another offering. And the ruling of this baraita, which taught that he brings an additional offering, is stated with regard to a zav who experienced two sightings. Since this zav has completed his purification process, as he is not obligated to bring an offering, these discharges constitute a new instance of ritual impurity. And the ruling of that baraita, which taught that he does not bring another offering, is stated with regard to a zav who had experienced three sightings. This zav must bring an offering, and the time for the offering has not yet arrived on the eighth night. Therefore, he is not obligated to bring another offering.

The Gemara raises a difficulty: If the ruling of that baraita is stated with regard to a zav who experienced two sightings, what is the purpose of stating this halakha? It is obvious that this is a new instance of ritual impurity. The Gemara explains: This is what the baraita teaches us: It is specifically if this zav saw a discharge on the night preceding the eighth day that he must bring an offering; but if he saw a discharge on the seventh day he is not obligated to bring an offering. This is because the tanna of this baraita holds: Any sighting of ziva that negates the days of purity, i.e., which causes the zav to have to count seven clean days afresh, does not bring him to the point of being liable to bring another offering.

Rava said: Why did you interpret that which is taught in the baraita, i.e., that he does not bring another offering, as stating a ruling with regard to a zav who experienced three sightings? If that is correct, let the tanna teach this example in the list that appears in a mishna from the next chapter (9a): There are five people who bring one offering for multiple transgressions, i.e., for violating the same transgression several times. The Gemara explains: The tanna did not include this case in that list because he could not state this halakha as a definitive ruling. As Rabbi Yoḥanan says: If the zav saw one discharge at night and then two on the eighth day, he brings an additional offering for these discharges. By contrast, if he saw two discharges at night and one in the day, he does not bring an additional offering.

Rav Yosef said: Know that if a zav saw one discharge at night and two in the day he brings an additional offering. This is because the first sighting of any zav is considered merely semen, since one who has a single discharge of ziva immerses on that day and is rendered ritually pure at sundown, like one who experiences a seminal emission. And yet if he sees two other discharges they combine with the first one to establish him as a zav and render him liable to bring an offering. The same applies in this case with regard to the eighth day.

Rav Sheshet, son of Rav Idi, said: Are the cases comparable? With regard to the first sighting of a zav, he saw it at a time of potential liability to bring an offering, which is why it combines with the next two discharges. By contrast, in a case where a zav sees one discharge at night preceding the eighth day, since he saw it when it was not the time of potential liability to bring an offering for the subsequent two sightings, as one who sees three discharges on the night preceding the eighth day does not bring an additional offering, were it not for the fact that Rabbi Yoḥanan teaches us that it combines with the other two discharges I would say it does not combine with them.

The Gemara asks: And does Rabbi Yoḥanan actually say that night is considered part of a date whose time has not yet arrived, as indicated by his ruling that if a zav experienced two discharges at night and one in the daytime he does not bring an additional offering?

But doesn’t Ḥizkiyya say that if a nazirite contracted ritual impurity through contact with a corpse and underwent the purification rites, after which he must bring an offering on the eighth day, and he again became ritually impure on the eighth day itself, he brings a second set of offerings. But if he became ritually impure on the night preceding the eighth day he does not bring an additional set of offerings, because he could not have brought the offering at night. And Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Even if the nazirite became ritually impure on the night preceding the eighth day, he brings a second set of offerings. This indicates that according to Rabbi Yoḥanan, night is not considered part of a date whose time has not yet arrived.

The Gemara answers: When Rabbi Yoḥanan says that if a zav experienced two discharges at night and one on the eighth day he does not bring an additional offering, he spoke according to the statement of the one who says that night is considered part of a date whose time has not yet arrived. He himself maintains that even if a zav experienced all three discharges at night he must bring an additional offering.

The Gemara objects: If he spoke only according to the statement of the one who says that night is considered part of a date whose time has not yet arrived, it is obvious that no new offerings are required. What novelty did Rabbi Yoḥanan intend to express? The Gemara answers: It was necessary for him to teach the first case, of a zav who saw one discharge at night and two in the day. Lest you say: Since he saw the one at night when it was not the time of incurring liability to bring an offering, it should not combine with the other two discharges. Rabbi Yoḥanan therefore teaches us that the discharges do combine with each other.

MISHNA: With regard to a woman who has in her case uncertainty concerning five births, and likewise a woman with regard to whom there is uncertainty concerning five irregular discharges of blood from the uterus [ziva], she brings one offering, and then she may partake of the meat of offerings. And the remaining offerings are not an obligation for her. If she experienced five definite discharges of a zava or five definite births, she brings one offering, and then she may partake of the meat of offerings. And the remaining offerings are an obligation for her.

There was an incident where the price of nests, i.e., pairs of birds, stood in Jerusalem at one gold dinar, as the great demand for birds for the offerings of a woman after childbirth and a zava led to an increase in the price. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said: I swear by this abode of the Divine Presence that I will not lie down tonight until the price of nests will be in silver dinars. Ultimately, he entered the court and taught: A woman who has in her case five definite discharges of a zava or five definite births brings one offering, and then she may partake of the meat of offerings. And the remaining offerings are not an obligation for her. And as a result, the price of the nests stood that day at one-quarter of a silver dinar, as the demand for nests decreased.

GEMARA: The Sages taught in a baraita (Tosefta 1:10): If a woman has the obligations of five definite births and five uncertain discharges of a zava, or five definite births and five uncertain births, she brings two nests, one for the definite obligation and one for the uncertain obligation. That which she brought for the definite obligation is eaten by the priests, and the remaining offerings are an obligation for her. That which she brought for the uncertain obligation is not eaten, and the remaining offerings are not an obligation for her.

Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Nuri says: With regard to offerings brought for the definite obligation, she should say: I am bringing the offering for the last definite obligation, and she is exempt from bringing the rest of the offerings. The reason is so that she should not think that no atonement is required for the others. With regard to offerings brought for the uncertain obligation, if there is a definite obligation among the uncertain offerings she should say: I am bringing it for the definite obligation, and she is exempt from the rest. But if there is no definite obligation she should say: I am bringing the offering for any one of them, not necessarily for the last one, and she is exempt. Rabbi Akiva says: Whether she brings her offering for the definite obligation or whether she brings it for the uncertain obligation, she should say: I am bringing it for one of them, and she is exempt.

Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said to Rav Pappa: I will say a statement to you in the name of Rava: With regard to these tanna’im, with regard to what matter do they disagree? Their disagreement is that Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Nuri, who requires her to bring the offering for her definite obligation for the last definite obligation, compares the offerings of a woman after childbirth to a sin offering brought for a transgression. As, one who is liable to bring five sin offerings does not achieve atonement until he brings all of them, and only the offering that he brings at the end atones for him. Here too, it is no different, and therefore she achieves atonement and may consume sacrificial food only if she brings an offering for her last obligation.

And Rabbi Akiva compares the offerings of a woman after childbirth to immersions in a ritual bath. As with regard to one who is obligated to perform five immersions, once he has immersed one time he is purified. Here too, it is no different, and consequently as soon as she brings an offering for any of the obligations she is ritually pure and is permitted to partake of sacrificial food.

Rav Pappa said to Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak: If it enters your mind that Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Nuri compares the offerings of a woman after childbirth to a sin offering, why then, with regard to offerings brought for the uncertain obligation, should she say: I am bringing it for any one of them, and she is exempt? If one who is obligated

Talmud - Bavli - The William Davidson digital edition of the Koren No=C3=A9 Talmud
with commentary by Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz Even-Israel (CC-BY-NC 4.0)
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