סקר
לקראת סיום מסכת עירובין






 

Steinsaltz

Let us issue a decree that two residents may not give away their rights in a domain, lest people come to renounce their rights in favor of two residents as well. People might assume that just as two may give away their rights to one, so too may one give away his rights to two. The mishna therefore teaches us that we do not issue such a decree.

We learned in the mishna: But two may not receive rights in a domain. The Gemara poses a question: Why do I need to say this? Isn’t it superfluous? The Gemara answers: No, it is necessary to teach that rights may not be acquired even if the other residents of the courtyard say to one of the two who did not establish an eiruv: Acquire our rights in the courtyard on condition that you transfer them in turn to your friend, the other one who did not establish an eiruv. The mishna teaches that he does not become their agent and cannot transfer the rights to the other person, as he himself cannot receive such rights under these circumstances.

Abaye raised a dilemma before Rabba: If five people live in the same courtyard, and one of them forgot to join in an eiruv, when he renounces his rights in the courtyard, must he renounce them in favor of each and every one of the others or not? Rabba said to him: He must renounce his rights in favor of each and every one.

Abaye raised an objection from the following baraita: One resident of a courtyard who did not establish an eiruv may renounce his rights in the courtyard in favor of one who did establish an eiruv. Two courtyard residents who established an eiruv may also renounce their rights in the courtyard in favor of one who did not establish an eiruv. And similarly, two courtyard residents who did not establish an eiruv may renounce their rights in the courtyard in favor of two residents who did establish an eiruv or in favor of one resident who did not establish an eiruv.

But one courtyard resident who did establish an eiruv may not renounce his rights in the courtyard in favor of one resident who did not establish an eiruv, nor may two residents who established an eiruv renounce their rights in the courtyard in favor of two other residents who did not establish an eiruv, nor may two residents who did not establish an eiruv renounce their rights in the courtyard in favor of two residents who did not establish an eiruv.

In any event the first clause is teaching: One resident of a courtyard who did not establish an eiruv may renounce his rights in the courtyard in favor of one who did establish an eiruv. What are the circumstances surrounding this case? If there is no other resident with him, i.e., if there were only two people living in the courtyard, with whom did he, the other resident, establish an eiruv? He could not have established an eiruv on his own.

Rather, it is obvious that there is another resident with him, apart from the one who failed to establish an eiruv, and yet it states: He may renounce his rights in the courtyard in favor of one who did establish an eiruv, which implies that it is enough for him to renounce his rights in favor of one of the residents. He does not have to renounce his rights in favor of all of them.

The Gemara now asks: And how does Rabba understand this teaching? The Gemara answers: Rabba can say as follows: With what are we dealing here? This is a special case, where there was another person in the courtyard with whom he established the eiruv, but that person died in the meantime, leaving only one who established an eiruv, to whom the one who did not establish an eiruv may renounce his rights.

The Gemara raises a difficulty: If it indeed refers to a case where there was another person, but he died, say an explanation for the latter clause of the baraita: But one courtyard resident who did establish an eiruv may not renounce his rights in favor of one who did not establish an eiruv. Now if it refers to a case where there was at first another person but he died, why may the one courtyard resident not renounce his rights in the courtyard? Now there is only one other person present in the courtyard.

Rather, it is obvious that there is another person present, with whom the eiruv was established. And since the latter clause of the baraita deals with a case where there is another person present, the first clause of the baraita must also be dealing with a case where there is another person present.

The Gemara rejects this proof: Is this necessarily the designation in both cases? Must the two clauses necessarily be dealing with the same case? This case as it is, and this case as it is, i.e., each clause deals with a unique set of circumstances, which need not accord with each other.

The Gemara adds: Know that this baraita does not only deal with one state of affairs, for the last part of the first clause teaches: And two courtyard residents who did not establish an eiruv may renounce their rights in the courtyard in favor of two residents who did establish an eiruv. It can be inferred from this that in favor of two residents, yes, they may renounce their rights, but in favor of one, no, they may not. This clearly indicates that they must renounce their rights in the courtyard in favor of both of them.

And Abaye can say: What is the meaning of in favor of two? In favor of one of the two, for this is as effective as renouncing their rights in favor of both of them. The Gemara raises a difficulty: If so, let it teach that the two courtyard residents who did not establish an eiruv may renounce their rights in the courtyard in favor of one resident who established an eiruv or in favor of one resident who did not establish an eiruv, from which one would understand that there are two present, for otherwise there could be no eiruv. The Gemara concludes: This is indeed difficult according to Abaye’s opinion, although it does not completely refute his opinion.

The Gemara now explains the need for each clause of the baraita. The baraita opens: One resident of a courtyard who did not establish an eiruv may renounce his rights in favor of one who did establish an eiruv. According to Abaye, this refers to a case where there is another person present, and it teaches us that he need not renounce his rights in the courtyard in favor of each and every one of the others. According to Rabba, this refers to a case where there was another person in the courtyard, with whom he established the eiruv, but that person died in the meantime, and the novel teaching is that the Sages did not issue a decree due to the concern that sometimes that other person is still present.

The baraita continues: Two courtyard residents who established an eiruv may renounce their rights in the courtyard in favor of one who did not establish an eiruv. The Gemara poses a question: Isn’t this obvious? What new halakha is being taught here? The Gemara answers: Lest you say that since he did not establish an eiruv, we should penalize him by insisting that he renounce his rights in their favor and not the reverse, therefore the baraita teaches us that it is permitted even for the ones who established an eiruv to renounce their rights in his favor.

It was further taught in the baraita: And similarly, two courtyard residents who did not establish an eiruv may renounce their rights in the courtyard in favor of two residents who established an eiruv. According to Rabba, the baraita taught the latter clause to shed light on the first clause. As the latter clause teaches that one must renounce rights to every resident in the courtyard, the first clause must refer to the case where the additional resident passed away, for otherwise, he would not be able to renounce his rights to only one of the residents of the courtyard. According to Abaye, it was necessary for the mishna to teach the halakha in the case of two who did not establish an eiruv. For it could enter your mind to say that we should issue a decree determining that the two residents who did not establish an eiruv may not renounce their rights in favor of the two residents who established an eiruv, lest the two who established an eiruv come to renounce their rights in favor of the two who did not. The baraita, therefore, teaches us that we do not issue such a decree.

The baraita continues: Or they may renounce their rights in favor of one who did not establish an eiruv. The Gemara poses a question: Why do I need this addition? The Gemara explains: Lest you say that these permissive rulings with regard to renunciation apply only in a case where some of the residents established an eiruv and some of them did not establish an eiruv. But in a case where none of the residents established an eiruv, we should penalize them by not allowing renunciation, so that the halakhic category of eiruv should not be forgotten by those who come after them. The baraita, therefore, teaches us that we are not concerned about this.

We further learned in the baraita: But one courtyard resident who did establish an eiruv may not renounce his rights in the courtyard in favor of one who did not establish an eiruv. According to Abaye, the baraita taught the latter clause to shed light on the first clause, for Abaye proves from here that a person may renounce his rights to one of the two courtyard residents, and need not renounce his rights to both of them. According to Rabba, since the baraita taught the first clause in a certain style, it also taught the latter clause in that same style, but no halakhic conclusion can be garnered from here.

The baraita further states: Nor may two residents who established an eiruv renounce their rights in the courtyard in favor of two other residents who did not establish an eiruv. The Gemara raises a difficulty: Why do I need this further matter? Isn’t this statement superfluous? The Gemara answers: No, it is necessary for the case where one of the two who did not establish an eiruv subsequently renounced his rights in favor of his fellow resident. Lest you say that it should now be permitted to carry, as there is only one person left who has any rights in the courtyard and failed to establish an eiruv, therefore it teaches us that since at the time of his renunciation he was not permitted in that courtyard, he may not renounce his rights in it, and therefore carrying is prohibited for both.

The baraita concludes: Nor may two residents who did not establish an eiruv renounce their rights in the courtyard in favor of two residents who did not establish an eiruv. The Gemara poses the question: Why do I need this additional matter? Isn’t it superfluous? The Gemara answers: No, it is necessary for the case where the other courtyard residents said to one of the first two who did not establish an eiruv: Acquire our rights in the courtyard on condition that you transfer them in turn to your friend, the other one who did not establish an eiruv. They attempted to appoint one of them as an agent to transfer the collective rights to the other. The baraita teaches us that this method is ineffective.

Rava raised a dilemma before Rav Naḥman: With regard to an heir, what is the halakha regarding whether he may renounce rights in a courtyard? If a person who had forgotten to establish an eiruv died on Shabbat, may his heir renounce his rights in his stead?

Talmud - Bavli - The William Davidson digital edition of the Koren No=C3=A9 Talmud
with commentary by Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz Even-Israel (CC-BY-NC 4.0)
אדם סלומון
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