סקר
עם סיום מסכת עירובין






 

Steinsaltz

If the fabric was three fingerbreadths by three fingerbreadths, it interposes; but if it was less than three fingerbreadths by three fingerbreadths, it does not interpose. And this is the same teaching that Rava said that Rav Ḥisda said.

The Gemara suggests: Let us say that this disagrees with the opinion of Rav Yehuda, son of Rav Ḥisda, who prohibits a sash even smaller than three fingerbreadths by three fingerbreadths. The Gemara rejects this contention: This is not necessarily so, as a small sash is different, since it is significant. It is therefore like a garment, even if it is smaller than three fingerbreadths by three fingerbreadths.

The Gemara raises a question: And according to the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥanan: Rather than teaching us the halakha with regard to a reed, let the mishna teach us that a priest may wrap his wounded finger with a small sash, as that does not constitute an interposition.

The Gemara explains: The tanna teaches us another matter in passing, that a reed heals. However, as far as a priest involved in the service in concerned, there is no concern with regard to this prohibition either, as it is also a rabbinic decree that is not in effect in the Temple.

MISHNA: One may scatter salt on Shabbat on the ramp that leads to the altar so that the priests will not slip on their way up. And likewise, one may draw water from the Cistern of the Exiles and from the Great Cistern, which were located in the Temple, by means of the wheel designed for drawing water, even on Shabbat. And one may draw water from the Heker Well only on a Festival.

GEMARA: Rav Ika from Pashronya raised a contradiction before Rava: We learned in the mishna: One may scatter salt on Shabbat on the ramp that leads to the altar, so that the priests will not slip, from which it can be inferred: In the Temple, yes, it is permitted to do so, but outside the Temple, in the rest of the country, no, it is prohibited to scatter salt on a ramp. And he raised his contradiction from a baraita: With regard to a courtyard that was damaged on Shabbat by rainwater, so that it became difficult to cross, one may bring straw and scatter it about to absorb the water. Apparently, an action of this kind is permitted even outside the Temple.

The Gemara answers: Straw is different, as one does not negate it; rather, he intends to remove it once the water has been absorbed. He is therefore permitted to scatter the straw in the courtyard, just as it is permitted to put it in any other place. However, it is prohibited to scatter objects that one intends to leave in place, such as salt, as this appears as though he is adding to the ground and building.

Rav Aḥa, son of Rava, said to Rav Ashi: This salt, what are the circumstances? If one negates it vis-à-vis the ramp so that it becomes part of the ramp, he effectively adds to the structure of the Temple, and it states with regard to the Temple: “All this do I give you in writing as God has made me wise by His hand upon me, even all the works of this pattern” (I Chronicles 28:19). This verse indicates that all the details of the Temple structure were determined through prophecy and may not be changed in any way, even on a weekday.

And if he does not negate the salt vis-à-vis the ramp, it would constitute an interposition between the feet of the priests and the altar. This would mean that they would not be walking on the ramp during their service, and consequently they would not be performing the service as required by the Torah.

The Gemara answers: In fact, he does not negate the salt. However, he scatters it when the limbs of the sacrifice are brought up the ramp, a procedure that is not considered part of the Temple service subject to disqualification due to interposition, as it is merely preparation for the burning of the limbs.

The Gemara asks: And is this not a service? But isn’t it written: “And the priest shall offer it whole and make it smoke upon the altar” (Leviticus 1:13), and the Master said in explanation: This is referring to bringing the limbs to the top of the ramp. Evidently, this too is a service written in the Torah. Rather, say that he scatters the salt when the wood is brought up the ramp to the arrangement of wood on the altar, a procedure that is not a service.

Rava taught: In a courtyard that was damaged on Shabbat by rainwater, one may bring straw and scatter it about to make it easier to walk across. Rav Pappa said to Rava: But wasn’t it taught in a baraita: When one scatters the straw, he must not scatter it either with a small basket or with a large basket, but only with the bottom of a broken basket, i.e., he must scatter the straw in a manner different from that of an ordinary weekday. Rava, however, indicates that he may scatter the straw in the usual fashion.

Rava then appointed an amora before him to publicize his teaching, and taught: The statement I issued before you was a mistake of mine. However, in fact they said in the name of Rabbi Eliezer as follows: And when one scatters the straw, he must not scatter it either with a small basket or with a large basket, but only with the bottom of a broken basket.

We learned in the mishna: One may draw water from the Cistern of the Exiles by means of a wheel. The Gemara relates: Ulla happened to come to the house of Rav Menashe when a certain man came and knocked at the door. Ulla said: Who is that? May his body be desecrated, as he desecrates Shabbat by producing a sound.

Rabba said to him: The Sages prohibited only a pleasant musical sound on Shabbat, not the rasping sound of knocking on a door. Abaye raised an objection to Rabba from a baraita: One may draw up wine from a barrel with a siphon [diyofei], and one may drip water from a vessel that releases water in drops [miarak], for an ill person on Shabbat.

The Gemara infers: For an ill person, yes, this is permitted, but for a healthy person, no, one may not do so, what are the circumstances? Is it not the case that he is dozing off and they wish to waken him, and as they do not want to alarm him due to his illness, they do it by means of the sound of water poured from a vessel? And one can learn from here that it is prohibited to produce a sound on Shabbat, even one that is unpleasant, as the Sages permitted this only for an ill person.

The Gemara rejects this contention: No, it is referring to an ill person who is awake and whom they want to have fall asleep, and to this end they let water fall in drops, producing a sound that is heard as melodious.

Abaye raised another objection to Rabba from a baraita: One who is guarding his produce from birds or his gourds from beasts may guard them, in the manner that he typically does so, on Shabbat, as his guarding does not entail a prohibited labor, provided that he neither claps, nor slaps his hands against his body, nor dances and produces noise with his feet, in the manner that is performed on weekdays to chase away birds and animals.

The Gemara asks: What is the reason that these activities are prohibited? Is it not because he is producing a sound on Shabbat, and any production of a sound is prohibited? Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov said: This is not the reason. Rather, it is a decree issued by the Sages, lest while acting in his usual weekday fashion he mistakenly picks up a pebble to throw at the birds, thereby handling an object that is set-aside.

The Gemara asks: However, with regard to that which Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: Women who play with nuts by rolling them on the ground until they collide with each other, it is prohibited for them to do so; what is the reason for this prohibition? Is it not because knocking nuts together produces a sound, and any production of a sound is prohibited?

The Gemara rejects this contention: No, it is prohibited because perhaps they will come to level the holes. As small holes in the ground will interfere with their game, they might level them out and seal them up on Shabbat, which is prohibited as building.

For if you do not say that this is the reason, there is a difficulty with that which Rav Yehuda said: Women who play with apples, this is prohibited, as what production of a sound is involved there? Apples do not produce a sound when they collide with each other. Rather, the reason is that they will perhaps come to level holes, and the same reasoning applies to nuts.

We learned in the mishna: One may draw water from the Cistern of the Exiles and from the Great Cistern by means of the wheel on Shabbat. From this it can be inferred: In the Temple, yes, it is permitted to do so; but outside the Temple in the rest of the country, no, it is prohibited to draw water from cisterns. What is the reason for this? Is it not because he is producing a sound, and that is prohibited on Shabbat?

The Gemara again rejects this contention: No, it is a decree issued by the Sages, lest he draw water for his garden and for his ruin. As the wheel draws up large quantities of water, once he starts to use it, he might draw water for his garden as well and thereby transgress the prohibition against watering on Shabbat, a subcategory of a prohibited labor.

The Gemara relates that Ameimar permitted people to draw water on Shabbat by means of a wheel in Meḥoza, as he said: What is the reason the Sages decreed that this is prohibited? They did so lest one draw water for his garden and for his ruin. However, here in Meḥoza there are neither gardens nor ruins. Meḥoza was entirely built up and lacked gardens or empty areas for sowing, and consequently, there was no concern that people might transgress.

However, once he saw that

Talmud - Bavli - The William Davidson digital edition of the Koren No=C3=A9 Talmud
with commentary by Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz Even-Israel (CC-BY-NC 4.0)
אדם סלומון
© כל הזכויות שמורות לפורטל הדף היומי | אודות | צור קשר | הוספת תכנים | רשימת תפוצה | הקדשה | תרומות | תנאי שימוש באתר | מפת האתר