סקר
הסבב ה-14 - באיזה סבב של דף יומי אתה?
ראשון
שני
שלישי
רביעי ומעלה


 

Steinsaltz

and reversed his cloak, so that his tear which he had rent in mourning of Rav was behind him, and in mourning, he rent another tear in his garment. He said: Rav is dead, and we have not yet learned the halakhot of the Grace after Meals. Until, this elder came and raised a contradiction from the mishna to the baraita, as cited above, and he resolved it for them: Since they said: Let us go and eat in such-and-such a place, it is considered as if they reclined.

We learned in the mishna: If they were reclined, one recites a blessing on behalf of them all. Rav said: This halakha was only taught with regard to bread that it requires reclining to enable one to recite a blessing on behalf of them all. However, wine does not require reclining. And Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Even wine requires reclining as well.

Some say that Rav said: The mishna only taught that reclining is effective and enables one to recite a blessing on behalf of them all, with regard to a group eating bread. However, with regard to a group drinking wine, reclining is ineffective and each individual must recite a blessing for himself. And Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Even with regard to wine, reclining is effective.

The Gemara raises an objection based on a Tosefta: What is the order of reclining at a meal? The guests enter and sit upon benches and chairs [katedraot] until all are assembled. Afterward, they brought them water and each and every one washes one hand in which to hold the cup of wine. When wine came before them prior to the meal, each and every one recites a blessing over the wine for himself. Then, when they entered and reclined on the divans for the meal itself, and water came before them, despite the fact that each and every one already washed one hand, they wash both hands again prior to the meal, so that they will be able to eat with both hands. If wine came before them during the meal, despite the fact that each and every one already recited a blessing for himself, one recites a blessing on behalf of them all.

If so, according to that version that Rav said: This halakha was only taught with regard to bread that it requires reclining to enable one to recite a blessing on behalf of them all. However, wine does not require reclining; the first clause of the Tosefta, which taught that each guest recites a blessing over the wine for himself, is difficult.

The Gemara answers: Guests are different, as when they are sitting in the hall prior to the meal, their intention is to leave and enter the dining room. Therefore, while there, their drinking together is not considered a joint meal.

And according to the version that Rav said: The mishna only taught that reclining is effective and enables one to recite a blessing on behalf of them all, with regard to a group eating bread. However, with regard to a group drinking wine, reclining is ineffective and each individual must recite a blessing for himself; the latter clause of the Tosefta, which taught that when drinking wine when reclining, one recites a blessing on behalf of all, is difficult.

The Gemara responds: There it is different, as since reclining is effective and enables one to recite a blessing on behalf of them all for bread, reclining is effective for wine as well.

We learned in the mishna: If wine came before them during the meal, each and every diner recites a blessing over the wine for himself. If the wine came after the meal, one recites a blessing on behalf of them all. The Tosefta relates: They asked Ben Zoma: Why did the Sages say: If wine came before them during the meal, each and every diner recites a blessing over the wine for himself; but if the wine came after the meal, one recites a blessing on behalf of them all? He said to them: This is because while eating, the throat is not available. If one recites a blessing on behalf of them all, he would be forced to wait until they all had finished eating and readied themselves to drink the wine together (Tosafot). To prevent imposing upon them, the Sages ruled that there is no need to recite the blessing together.

The mishna teaches: And he, who recited the blessing over the wine, also recites the blessing over the incense, although they bring the incense only after the meal. The Gemara asks: From the fact that the mishna teaches: And he recites the blessing over the incense, it can be inferred that there is someone who should take precedence over him, to recite the blessing. That is why the mishna must emphasize that it is he who recites the blessing. And why does the one who recited the blessing over the wine nevertheless recite the blessing over the incense?

The Gemara responds: Since he washed his hands first after the meal, prior to Grace after Meals, he also recites the blessing over the incense, as the washing of hands after the meal and the burning of the incense serve similar functions.

The Gemara comments: This supports the opinion of Rav, as Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi says that Rav says: He who washes his hands first after the meal is designated to recite the blessing of Grace after Meals. Evidently, being given priority in performing one mitzva related to the meal results in that same person being given priority with regard to other mitzvot related to the meal. The Gemara relates: Rav and Rabbi Ḥiyya were seated before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi at a meal. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to Rav: Stand and wash your hands. Rabbi Ḥiyya saw that Rav was trembling, as Rav thought that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was criticizing him for eating too much or for having dirty hands. Rabbi Ḥiyya said to Rav: Son of noblemen, he is telling you to review Grace after Meals. As you will be the one reciting Grace after Meals, he told you to wash your hands first.

Having mentioned the blessing over incense, the Gemara proceeds to discuss various halakhot that deal with blessings recited over scents. Rabbi Zeira said that Rava bar Yirmeya said: From when does one recite the blessing over the scent of incense? From when its column of smoke rises after the incense has been placed upon the coals. Rabbi Zeira said to Rava bar Yirmeya: But at that point, he has not yet smelled it. Rava bar Yirmeya said to him: And according to your reasoning, the blessing: Who brings forth bread from the earth, that one recites before eating bread, at that point, he has not yet eaten from it. Rather, in that case, one recites the blessing when he intends to eat; here too, he intends to smell.

Rabbi Ḥiyya, son of Abba bar Naḥmani, said that Rav Ḥisda said that Rav said, and some say that Rav Ḥisda said that Ze’iri said: Over all the incense one recites: Who creates fragrant trees, except for musk, which is extracted from a living creature, and over which one recites: Who creates various spices.

The Gemara raises an objection based on what was taught in a baraita: One only recites: Who creates fragrant trees, over the balsam from the house of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, and over balsam from the house of Caesar and over myrtle everywhere. According to the previous statement, one recites that blessing over all types of incense.

The Gemara comments: Indeed, it is a conclusive refutation.

Rav Ḥisda said to Rav Yitzḥak: This balsam oil, what blessing does one recite over it? Rav Yitzḥak said to him, this is what Rav Yehuda said: One recites: Who creates the oil of our land, as balsam only grew in Eretz Yisrael, in the Jordan valley. Rav Ḥisda said to him: Except for Rav Yehuda, for whom Eretz Yisrael was extremely beloved and who therefore mentioned it in his blessing, what blessing does everyone else recite over balsam oil?

He said to him: This is what Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One recites: Who creates pleasant oil.

Rav Adda bar Ahava said: Over costus, a spice, one recites: Who creates fragrant trees, but over oil that was pressed with spices to absorb their scents, no, one does not recite that blessing. And Rav Kahana said: Even over oil pressed with spices, one recites: Who creates fragrant trees, but not over oil into which spices were ground. The Sages of Neharde’a say: Even over oil into which spices were ground, which is of even lower quality, one recites this blessing.

Talmud - Bavli - The William Davidson digital edition of the Koren No=C3=A9 Talmud
with commentary by Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz Even-Israel (CC-BY-NC 4.0)
אדם סלומון
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