סקר
ללומדים דף יומי בלילה - איזה דף אתם לומדים?




 

Steinsaltz

or for gleanings, forgotten sheaves, or produce of the corner of the field, three obligatory agricultural gifts that must be given to the poor, once three Festivals have passed they transgress the prohibition: You shall not delay. Rabbi Shimon says: These three Festivals must be in their proper order, with the festival of Passover first.

Rabbi Meir says: Once even one Festival has passed, one transgresses the prohibition: You shall not delay. Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov says: Once two Festivals have passed, one transgresses the prohibition: You shall not delay. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, says: Once the festival of Sukkot has passed, one transgresses the prohibition: You shall not delay.

The Gemara proceeds to explain the various opinions: What is the rationale of the first tanna? Since the entire chapter (Deuteronomy, chapter 16) has just concluded a discussion of the three pilgrimage Festivals, why, after stating: “Three times a year shall all your males appear before the Lord your God” (Deuteronomy 16:16), do I need the Torah to write again: “On the festival of Passover, and on the festival of Shavuot, and on the festival of Sukkot; and they shall not appear before the Lord empty-handed” (Deuteronomy 16:16)? Rather, learn from here that the verse comes to teach with regard to the halakha of: You shall not delay, that one does not transgress the prohibition unless these three Festivals have passed.

And Rabbi Shimon, who said that one does not transgress the prohibition against delaying unless these three Festivals have passed in order, says in explanation of his opinion: It was not necessary for the verse to say again “on the festival of Sukkot,” of which the immediately preceding text was speaking. Why, then, is it stated? It is to teach that this must be the last one, i.e., that the three Festivals must pass in order, so that Sukkot is the last of the three.

And Rabbi Meir, who says that one transgresses the prohibition against delaying as soon as one Festival has passed, what is the rationale for his opinion? It is as it is written: “But to the place which the Lord your God shall choose out of all your tribes to put His name there, there shall you seek Him, at his dwelling, and there shall you come: And there you shall bring your burnt-offerings and your sacrifices, and your tithes, and the offerings of your hand, and your vows, and your gift offerings, and the firstlings of your herds and your flocks” (Deuteronomy 12:5–6). This teaches that one transgresses the prohibition if he fails to bring the offerings for which he is liable as soon as the time has arrived that “there shall you come,” i.e., by the first Festival.

The Gemara asks: And the Rabbis, who say that one transgresses the prohibition against delaying only after three Festivals have passed, how do they understand this verse? The Gemara answers: In their opinion, this verse teaches that there is a positive mitzva to bring one’s vow-offerings on the first Festival; however, if one did not bring them, he has not transgressed the prohibition against delaying, although he has failed to perform the positive mitzva.

The Gemara asks: And how does Rabbi Meir counter this argument? The Gemara answers: He would say that since the Merciful One tells one to bring the offering at that time and he did not bring it, automatically he is liable for transgressing the prohibition: You shall not delay, as he has missed the time set by the Torah.

The Gemara asks: And Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov, who said that one transgresses the prohibition against delaying once two Festivals have passed, what is the rationale for his opinion? The Gemara explains: It is as it is written: “These things you shall do to the Lord in your appointed times, besides your vows, and your gift offerings, for your burnt-offerings, and for your meal-offerings, and for your drink-offerings, and for your peace-offerings” (Numbers 29:39). According to this verse, the time set for the bringing of vows is at the “appointed times,” and the minimum number of appointed times in the plural is two.

The Gemara asks: And how do the Rabbis understand this verse? The Gemara explains: They say that the term “appointed times” is needed for the teaching of Rabbi Yona, as Rabbi Yona said: All the Festivals are equated with each other, insofar as all the goats brought as sin-offerings on the Festivals atone for the impurity of the Temple and its sacred objects, just like the goat brought as a sin-offering on the New Moon.

The Gemara asks further: And Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, who says that once the festival of Sukkot has passed one immediately transgresses the prohibition against delaying, what is the rationale for his opinion? The Gemara explains: It is as it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, says: It was not necessary for the verse to mention “the festival of Sukkot (Deuteronomy 16:16), of which the immediately preceding text was speaking. If so, why is it stated? It is to say that this Festival is what causes one to be considered late in fulfilling his vow, since by the end of the Festival he must bring all of his current vows to the Temple, whether he took his vow shortly before Sukkot or much earlier.

And Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov, what do they expound from this verse: “On the festival of Passover, and on the festival of Shavuot, and on the festival of Sukkot”? The Gemara explains: They require this verse for the halakha that Rabbi Elazar said that Rabbi Oshaya said, as Rabbi Elazar said that Rabbi Oshaya said: From where is it derived that the Shavuot offering has redress all seven days, i.e., that if one failed to bring the Festival peace-offering on the Festival itself, he has six more days to bring it? The verse states: “On the festival of Passover, and on the festival of Shavuot, and on the festival of Sukkot,” thereby equating the festival of Shavuot to the festival of Passover. Just as the festival of Passover has redress all seven days, as Passover is seven days long, so too, the festival of Shavuot has redress all seven days, during the week following the festival of Shavuot.

The Gemara asks: If so, draw an analogy from the festival of Shavuot to the festival of Sukkot, which is also mentioned in close proximity to it, and say: Just as below, on Sukkot, the offering may be brought for eight days, so too, here, on Shavuot, it should be possible to bring the offering for eight days. The Gemara rejects this suggestion: This is not so, as even on Sukkot the Festival peace-offering may be brought only for seven days, as the eighth day is a separate Festival in and of itself.

The Gemara raises a question: But can’t you say that we say that the Eighth Day of Assembly is a Festival in and of itself only with regard to peh, zayin, reish, kuf, shin, beit, an acronym that stands for six unique aspects to the Eighth Day of Assembly. But with regard to the matter of redress for failing to bring a Festival peace-offering, everyone agrees that the Eighth Day of Assembly is still a day of redress for the first day of the festival of Sukkot.

As we learned in a mishna: If one did not bring his Festival peace-offering on the first day of the festival of Sukkot, he may still bring the Festival peace-offering during all of the Festival and even on the last day of the Festival, as the Eighth Day of Assembly is regarded as part of Sukkot for this purpose. If so, perhaps the festival of Shavuot can be compared to the festival of Sukkot such that the Festival peace-offering of Shavuot may also be brought for eight days.

The Gemara answers: It is preferable to equate Shavuot to Passover and not to Sukkot due to the general principle: If you grasped many, you did not grasp anything; if you grasped few, you grasped something. That is to say, in a case of doubt, choose the smaller number, as it is included within the larger number.

The Gemara asks: But if so, with regard to what halakha did the Merciful One write the festival of Sukkot in this verse? The Gemara explains: It is to draw an analogy from Sukkot to the festival of Passover with regard to a different issue:

Talmud - Bavli - The William Davidson digital edition of the Koren No=C3=A9 Talmud
with commentary by Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz Even-Israel (CC-BY-NC 4.0)
אדם סלומון
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