סקר
איך אתה לומד דף יומי?






 

Steinsaltz

The Gemara asks a question concerning the explanation of Rabbi Yehuda: One who has dependent children and does not have anything with which to support them is apparently the same as one whose house is empty. Why does Rabbi Yehuda list both descriptions? Rav Ḥisda said: This expression means that his house is empty of transgression. And Rabbi Yehuda further said that the prayer leader must be one whose youth was becoming. In explanation of this phrase, Abaye said: This is one who did not have a bad reputation at any time during his youth.

The Gemara cites a verse in relation to the prayer leader: “My heritage has become to me as a lion in the forest. She has uttered her voice against me; therefore I have hated her” (Jeremiah 12:8). What is the meaning of the phrase: “She has uttered her voice against me”? Mar Zutra bar Toviyya said that Rav said, and some say Rabbi Ḥama said that Rabbi Elazar said: This is an unworthy prayer leader who descends before the ark. When this person calls out to God, He thinks, so to speak: I hate the sound of his prayer.

§ The mishna teaches: And the prayer leader recites twenty-four blessings before them: The eighteen blessings of the everyday Amida prayer, to which he adds another six blessings. The Gemara asks: Are these six blessings? In fact, they are seven, as we learned in a mishna: For the seventh he recites, Blessed are You, Lord, Who has mercy on the Land. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: What is the meaning of the seventh blessing? This is referring to the seventh for length, i.e., there were actually six new blessings, but as the prayer leader lengthens the sixth weekday blessing it is considered an additional blessing.

As it is taught in a baraita: In the blessing of: Redeemer of Israel, the prayer leader lengthens the blessing, and for its conclusion he recites: He Who answered Abraham on Mount Moriah, He will answer you and hear the sound of your cry on this day. Blessed are You, Lord, Redeemer of Israel. And the community answers amen after him. And the sexton says to them: Blow a long, unwavering sound, sons of Aaron, blow.

And the prayer leader resumes and recites the second blessing, concluding: He Who answered our forefathers by the Red Sea, He will answer you and hear the sound of your cry on this day. Blessed are You, Lord, Who remembers the forgotten. And the community answers amen after him. And the sexton says to them: Blast a wavering sound, sons of Aaron, blast. And similarly, this is the procedure for each and every additional blessing: After one blessing he says: Blow a long, unwavering sound, and after the next one he says: Blast a wavering sound.

The Gemara asks: In what case is this statement said? This method applies in the outlying areas, i.e., everywhere except in the Temple. However, in the Temple itself this is not the correct procedure, as one does not answer amen in the Temple. Instead, one responds with a long blessing. The Gemara inquires: And from where is it derived that one does not answer amen in the Temple?

The Gemara answers: As it is stated: “Stand up and bless the Lord, your God, from everlasting to everlasting, and let them say: Blessed be Your glorious name, that is exalted above all blessing and praise” (Nehemiah 9:5). One might have thought that for all blessings there should be only one praise, i.e., all blessings are answered with amen. Therefore, the verse states: “That is exalted above all [al kol] blessing and praise,” which indicates that for every [al kol] blessing, you should give it its own praise.

But if so, in the Temple, what would the prayer leader recite? He would conclude the blessing: Blessed be the Lord, God of Israel, from everlasting to everlasting. Blessed are You, Lord, Redeemer of Israel. And instead of amen, they answer after him: Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom forever and all time. And the sexton says to them: Blow, priests, sons of Aaron, blow.

And the prayer leader resumes and recites the second blessing, concluding: He Who answered Abraham on Mount Moriah, He will answer you and hear the sound of your cry on this day. Blessed be the Lord, God of Israel, Who remembers the forgotten. And the community answers after him: Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom forever and all time. And the sexton says to them: Blast, priests, sons of Aaron, blast, etc. And similarly, this is the procedure for each and every additional blessing: After one blessing he says: Blow a long, unwavering sound, and after the next one he says: Blast a wavering sound, until he concludes all the blessings.

§ The Gemara relates: And this was the custom Rabbi Ḥalafta established in the city of Tzippori, and Rabbi Ḥananya ben Teradyon in the city of Sikhni. And when this matter came before the Sages, they said: They would act in accordance with this custom only at the Eastern Gate of the Temple and on the Temple Mount, but not outside the Temple.

And some say that they acted as it is taught in a baraita: And he recites twenty-four blessings before them: The eighteen blessings of the everyday Amida prayer, to which he adds another six blessings. And those extra six, where does he recite them? Between the blessings: Redeemer of Israel, and: Healer of the sick. And he lengthens the earlier prayer of redemption, and the congregation answers amen after him, for each and every blessing. And this was the custom in the outlying areas, outside the Temple.

However, in the Temple they would recite: Blessed be the Lord, God of Israel, from everlasting to everlasting. Blessed are You, Lord, Redeemer of Israel, and they would not answer amen after him. And why did the practice differ so much? Because one does not answer amen in the Temple. And from where is it derived that one does not answer amen in the Temple? As it is stated: “Stand up and bless the Lord, your God, from everlasting to everlasting, and let them say: Blessed be Your glorious Name, that is exalted above all blessing and praise” (Nehemiah 9:5). As stated above, this verse indicates that for every blessing, you should give it its own praise.

The Sages taught: In concluding the first blessing he recites: Blessed be the Lord, God of Israel, from everlasting to everlasting. Blessed are You, Lord, Redeemer of Israel, and they would answer after him: Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom forever and all time. And the sexton says: Blow, priests, blow. And he resumes the blessings and recites: He Who answered Abraham on Mount Moriah, He will answer you and hear the sound of your cry on this day. And they blow a long, unwavering sound, and blast a wavering sound, and blow. And for the second blessing he recites: Blessed be the Lord, God of Israel, from everlasting to everlasting, who remembers the forgotten, and they would answer after him: Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom forever and all time.

And the sexton says: Blast, sons of Aaron, blast. And he recites: He Who answered our forefathers by the Red Sea, He will answer you and hear the sound of your cry on this day. And they blow, and blast, and blow. And similarly, for each and every blessing: After one he says: Blow, and after the next one he says: Blast, until he concludes all of them. And this was the custom Rabbi Ḥalafta established in Tzippori, and Rabbi Ḥananya ben Teradyon in Sikhni. And when this matter came before the Sages, they said: They would act in accordance with this custom only at the Eastern Gate and on the Temple Mount.

§ The mishna taught: Rabbi Yehuda says: The prayer leader did not need to recite the Remembrances and Shofarot passages. Instead, he recited verses dealing with famine and suffering. Rabbi Adda from Jaffa said: What is Rabbi Yehuda’s reason? Rabbi Yehuda maintains that one recites Remembrances and Shofarot

Talmud - Bavli - The William Davidson digital edition of the Koren No=C3=A9 Talmud
with commentary by Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz Even-Israel (CC-BY-NC 4.0)
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