סקר
איך אתה לומד דף יומי?






 

Steinsaltz

MISHNAH: Thirteen horns, thirteen tables, and thirteen prostrations were in the Temple. The family of Rabban Gamliel and of Rebbi Ḥanania the Second in Command of the priests were prostrating themselves fourteen times. And where was the additional one? In front of the storage room of the wood since they had a tradition from their forefathers that there the Ark was hidden.
It happened that a Cohen was occupied when he saw that a floor tile was different from the others. He went to tell it to a comrade but could not finish speaking before his soul left him; then they knew with certainty the the Ark was hidden there.

HALAKHAH: “Thirteen horns,” etc. It was stated: these horns were curved; narrow on top and wide on the bottom because of the tricksters1The “horns” were chests for the money given to the Temple for various reasons, as detailed in Mishnah 7. A person putting money into one of the chests could not put his hand into it, he had to let the coins drop in from the top..

It was stated in the name of Rebbi Eliezer: 2Tosephta 2:18; Babli Yoma53b..“The Ark was deported with them to Babylon. What is the reason? There will not remain a word32K.20:17.. Word refers only to what contains the Words. And so it says, at the turn of the year king Nebuchadnezzar sent and brought him to Babylon with the desirable vessels of the Eternal’s House42Chr.36:10. In the Tosephta this is the reason given by R. Simeon (ben Yoḥay) in support of R. Eliezer.. What are the desirables of the Eternal’s House? This is the Ark. Rebbi Simeon ben Laqish5This name of an Amora is impossible in a Tosephta. B has R. Jehudah bar Ilay; the Tosephta R. Jehudah ben Laqish (a fifth generation Tanna). Also quoted in Sefer Wehizhir p. 92a. said, at its place it was hidden. That is what is written61K. 8:8., the poles were long; the tips of the poles were seen in the Sanctuary, in front of the Hall, but were not seen outside,<and were there until this day.7The additional words are only in ג and the Tosephta; they are the reason for ben Laqish’s statement.> It is written, were seen, and you are saying, but were not seen. They protrude and stick out like a woman’s breasts8This argument only explains the wording of the verse, explaining that the ends of the poles with which the Ark was carried were noticed on the gobelin between the Sanctuary and the Holiest of Holies. Babli Yoma54a in the name of Rav Jehudah..

But the rabbis say, the Ark was hidden in the storage room of the wood. It happened that a blemished Cohen was splitting wood in the storage room of the wood and saw a floor plate different from the others. 9This and the next sentences are missing in B and M; the full text is quoted by Sefer Wehizhir(p. קיג); a slightly different full version is in Babli Yoma54a. He came and said to a colleague, come and see this floor plate which is different from the others. They did not finish the matter before his soul left him; then they knew that there the Ark was hidden. Rebbi Hoshaia stated10B and M: It was stated in R. Hoshaia’s name.: He hit on it with a sledgehammer; fire erupted and burned him.

11From here to the end of the Halakhah the text is from Soṭah8:3 (Notes 43–130,ס), where all references to the Babli are given. It was stated: “Rebbi Jehudah ben Laqish says, two arks were travelling with Israel in the desert; one in which the Torah was deposited and one in which the broken pieces of the tablets were deposited. The one in which the Torah was deposited was put into the Tent of Meeting; that is what is written12Num. 14:44.: Moses and the Ark of the Eternal’s covenant did not move from the camp. The one in which the broken pieces of the tablets were deposited was going out and coming in with them13Sifry Num. #82, referring to Num. 10.33.. But the Rabbis say, it was only one, and once it went out in the days of Eli and was taken prisoner. A verse supports the Rabbis: Woe to us, who will save us from this mighty god141S.5:8.? A word which shows that they never had seen it before. A verse supports Rebbi Jehudah ben Laqish. Saul said to Aḥiya: present God’s Ark151S.14:18.. But was the Ark not at Qiryat Ye`arim? What do the rabbis do with it? ‘Present to me the High Priest’s diadem16This is the correct interpretation, as explained at the end of Yoma Chapter 7, not “ephod” following LXX and many moderns.’ Another verse supports Rebbi Jehudah ben Laqish: The Ark, Israel, and Jehudah, dwell in huts172S. 11:11.. Was the Ark not in Zion? What do the rabbis with it? The straw roof cover that was in the walls, since the Temple was not yet built.

When the ark was hidden, there were hidden with it the flask of Manna, the bottle of anointing oil, Aaron’s staff with its almonds and flowers, and the chest which the Philistines returned as a reparation sacrifice for Israel’s God. Who hid it? Josiah hid it. When he saw that it was written: The Eternal will lead you and your king whom you will have put above you, to a people whom neither you nor your fathers had known, he started and hid it. That is what is written: He said to the Levites, who instruct all of Israel, the ones holy to the Eternal, put the Ark into the House that Salomon, son of David, King of Israel, built; you do not have to carry it on your shoulder.” He said, if it is exiled with you to Babylonia, you will never return it to its place. But now, serve the Eternal, your God, and his people Israel.

The preparation of the anointing oil. Take for yourself select spices, etc. and cassia 500, etc., altogether 1500 parts. And olive oil one hin, that is twelve log, in which the roots were cooked, the words of Rebbi Meןr. Rebbi Jehudah says, he cooked them in water, then poured the oil on them, and when it had absorbed the fragrance one removed it, just as the perfumers do. That is what is written: holy anointing oil, etc.

18This and the following paragraph also are in Horaiot3:3 (ה). Rebbi Jehudah bar Ilay stated: The anointing oil made by Moses in the desert was from the start to the end a work of wonders, since there were only twelve log to start with, as it was said, and olive oil one hin. It would not have been enough to rub the wooden planks with it; so much more since the fire swallows, wood absorbs, and the kettle absorbs! From it the Tabernacles and all its vessels were anointed, the table and its vessels, the candelabrum and all its vessels. From it Aaron and his sons were anointed all of the seven days of induction, from it all high priests and kings were anointed. A king who is first needs anointing, a king who is a king’s son does not need anointing. [What is the reason? Do anoint him, for this one is it191S. 17:20., this one needs anointing but his son does not need anointing.]20Corrector’s addition from B. But a High Priest who is the son of a High Priest needs anointing, even for ten generations. Nevertheless, it is all there for the future; that is what is written21Ex. 30:31., a holy anointing oil will this be for Me, for all your generations.

One anoints kings only at a spring, as it was said221K. 1:33–34.: Let Solomon, my son, ride on my mule and take him down to the Giḥon; there Ṣadoq the priest and Nathan the prophet shall anoint him as king over Israel. One anoints (kings) [kings sons of kings]23Corrector’s addition from B, not found in Yerushalmi sources. The mention of Jehu shows that the scribe’s text is the correct one. only because of disputes. Why was Solomon anointed? Because of the dispute of Adoniahu, Joash because of Athaliah, Jehu because of Joram. Is it not written191S. 17:20., do anoint him, for this one is it, this one needs anointing, but the kings of Israel do not need anointing? But Joaḥaz because of his brother Joiakim who was two years his elder. But did not Josiah hide it24The anointing oil. Therefore none of Josia’s sons could be anointed with the anointing oil.? That means that they anointed with balsamum. One anoints kings only from a horn. Saul and Jehu were anointed from a can because their kingdom was temporary; David and Solomon were anointed from a horn because their kingdom was permanent. One does not anoint priests as kings25Text missing in B but implied by R. Ḥiyya bar Ada.. Rebbi Jehudah Antordiya said, because26Gen. 49:10. the scepter shall not be removed from Jehudah. Rebbi Ḥiyya bar Ada said, because of27Deut. 17:20. he shall have many days of his kingdom, he and his sons in the midst of Israel. What is written after that? The levitic Cohanim should not28Deut. 18:1..

Rebbi Joḥanan said, Joḥanan is Joaḥaz. But is it not written: The first born Joḥanan291Chr. 3:15., the first in kingdom. Rebbi Joḥanan said, Shallum is Sedekiah. But is it not written,291Chr. 3:15. the third Sedekiah, the fourth Shallum? Sedekiah, the third in birth, the fourth in kingdom. Sedekiah, because he accepted the judgment on himself, Shallum, because in his days the dynasty of David was completed. 30In B this is a statement by R. Simeon ben Laqish, disputing R. Joḥanan’s. His name was neither Shallum nor Sedekiah but Mattaniah. That is what is written312K. 24:17.: The king of Babylon made his uncle Mattaniah32B’s reading מתתיה probably is a scribal error, not a different reading in the verse. king in his stead and changed his name into Sedekiah.

Rebbi Joḥanan said, the Ark was made with a cubit of six hand-breadths. Who stated “a cubit of six hand-breadths“? This is Rebbi Meןr’s. [As we have stated33Mishnah Kelim17:10.: “Rebbi Meןr says, all cubits were of buildings; Rebbi Jehudah says, the cubit of buildings six, of vessels five.”] According to Rebbi Meןr who says that the Ark was made with a cubit of six hand-breadths, the length of the Ark was fifteen cubits, as it is written34Ex. 25:10.: Its length two cubits and a half. Each cubit was six and half a cubit three. Four tablets were in it, two whole ones and two broken ones, as it is written35Deut. 10:2.: Which you broke and put into the Ark. Each of the tablets was six hand-breadths in length and three in width. Put the widths of the tablets in the length of the Ark, there were three hand-breadths left. Apply them to the cylinder36The Torah scroll.. [On each side half a hand-breadth to have a handle, and two hand-breadths as place to put there the Torah scroll.]37Corrector’s addition from B, to be deleted. The width of the Ark was nine hand-breadths, as it is written: A cubit and half a cubit. A cubit six and half a cubit three. Four tablets were in it, two whole ones and two broken ones. Each of the tablets was six hand-breadths in length and three in width. Put the lengths of the tablets in the length of the Ark, there were three hand-breadths left. On each side half a hand-breadth to have a handle, and two hand-breadths as a place to put there the Torah scroll.

Rebbi Simeon ben Laqish said, the Ark was made using a cubit of five hand-breadths. Who stated “a cubit of five hand-breadths”? This is Rebbi Jehudah. As we have stated there33Mishnah Kelim17:10.: “Rebbi Jehudah says, the builders’ cubit was of six hand-breadths, but that of vessels five hand-breadths.” And the Ark is a vessel. According to Rebbi Jehudah who says that the Ark was made with a cubit of five hand-breadths, the length of the Ark was twelve and one half cubits, as it is written34Ex. 25:10.: Its length two cubits and a half. Each cubit was five and half a cubit two and one half. Four tablets were in it, two whole ones and two broken ones, as it is written35Deut. 10:2.: Which you broke and put into the Ark. Each of the tablets was six hand-breadths in length and three in width. Put the width of the tablets in the length of the Ark, there remains there half a handbreadth. One finger’s thickness for the wall on either side. The width of the Ark was seven and a half hand-breadths, as it is written, Its width a cubit and half a cubit. A cubit five and half a cubit two and a half. Four tablets were in it, two whole ones and two broken ones, as it is written35Deut. 10:2.: Which you broke and put into the Ark.. Each of the tablets was six hand-breadths in length and three in width. Put the lengths of the tablets in the width of the Ark, there was one and a half hand-breadths left. 39This sentence is not a continuation of the preceding text but the conclusion of an additional argument about the width of the Ark, reproduced in B and Soṭah. One finger’s thickness for the wall on either side and on each side half a hand-breadth to have a handle.

How did Beṣalel make the Ark? Rebbi Ḥanina said, he made three boxes, two of gold and one of wood. He put (the one of wood inside one of gold and) one of gold inside the one of wood, [and the one of wood inside the other one of gold] and covered it, as is written40Ex.25:11. As usual, the proof is by the part of the verse not quoted: You shall cover it, with pure gold inside and out you shall cover it, implying separate covers.: You shall cover it with pure gold inside and out. Why does the verse say, you shall cover it? To include the upper rim. Rebbi Simeon ben Laqish said, he made one box and gilded it, as is written: You shall cover it with pure gold inside and out. Why does the verse say, you shall cover it? Rebbi Phineas said, also between the planks.

How were the tablets written? Rebbi Ḥanania ben Gamliel says, five on one tablet each41This minority opinion is everywhere accepted in depictions of the tablets.. But the rabbis say, ten on each tablet, as it is written42Deut. 4:13.: He informed you of His covenant which He had commanded you to do, the ten words, ten on each tablet. Rebbi Simeon ben Yoḥai43The name tradition here is very varied. said, twenty on each tablet, as it is written: He informed you of His covenant which He had commanded you to do, the ten words, twenty on each tablet44Ten on the top, ten on the bottom.. Rebbi Simai says, forty on each tablet, as it is written, on each side they were written45Ex. 32:15., a square46Greek τετράγωνον. He holds that the tablets were cubes, top and bottom empty and identical writing on each of the faces.. Ḥananiah, the son of Rebbi Joshua’s brother, says: Between every two commandments, the details and the letters [of the Torah] were written. Filled with tarsis47Cant. 5:14. His hands are golden cylinders, inlaid with tarsis, the cylinders being Torah scrolls (Cant. rabba5:12). The Palestinian Targum to Ex. 28:20, 39:13 translates taršiš by כְּרוֹם יַמָּא רַבָּא ”the color of the Great Sea.“ One may assume that the scribe of the Yerushalmi did not understand the Greek χρω̅μα “color” and shortened it to .כְּ. The Targum to Cant. translates taršiš by the Syriac/Pahlevi word פֵּירוֹזַג (Farsi פירוזה) “turquoise”. The sentence is missing in the Genizah text and in B., like the Great Sea48. When Rebbi Simeon ben Laqish had occasion to discuss this verse, he said, Ḥananiah, the son of Rebbi Joshua’s brother, did teach us correctly. Just as in the sea there are small waves between a large wave and the next, so between any two commandments there are the details and the letters of the Torah.

Talmud - Bavli - The William Davidson digital edition of the Koren No=C3=A9 Talmud
with commentary by Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz Even-Israel (CC-BY-NC 4.0)
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