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באיזה גיל התחלת ללמוד דף יומי






 

Steinsaltz

eventually the carcass of the bird will impart a more severe impurity when it is in the throat of the person who consumes it. Therefore, it is not necessary for the carcass of a kosher bird to come in contact with liquid in order for it to be susceptible to impurity.

Ḥizkiyya says in response: The reason for the opinion of the Sages stated by Rabbi Asi is since the slaughterer is able to chop the animal into small pieces and thereby establish the volume of every piece of the animal as less than an olive-bulk. In such a scenario, the animal would not be susceptible to impurity. Therefore, it is not certain that the animal will eventually become impure with a more severe impurity.

Rabbi Yirmeya said to Rabbi Zeira: And did Ḥizkiyya actually say such a statement? But wasn’t it stated: If one slaughtered a non-kosher animal in a valid manner by cutting the two simanim, i.e., the windpipe and the gullet, or the majority of the two simanim, and the animal is still twitching, Ḥizkiyya says: There is no prohibition against eating the limbs from such a twitching animal. Therefore, a gentile, who is prohibited from consuming a limb from a living animal, may consume this animal. Rabbi Yoḥanan says: There is a prohibition against eating the limbs of such an animal.

The Gemara explains the opinions: Ḥizkiyya says that there is no prohibition against eating the limbs of such an animal, as since it was slaughtered in a valid manner it is considered dead. Rabbi Yoḥanan says that there is a prohibition against eating the limbs of such an animal, as since it is twitching it is not yet dead. Therefore, since Ḥizkiyya maintains that a twitching animal is considered dead, it should have the impurity of a carcass, contrary to the opinion of the Sages cited by Rabbi Asi, as well as the mishna.

Rabbi Zeira said to Rabbi Yirmeya in response: Ḥizkiyya maintains that such an animal has left the category of a living animal, but has not entered the category of a dead animal. Therefore, it is not prohibited for a gentile to consume such an animal, but the animal does not have the impurity of a carcass.

§The Gemara discusses the matter itself of the dispute between Ḥizkiyya and Rabbi Yoḥanan: If one slaughtered a non-kosher animal by cutting the two simanim, or the majority of the two simanim, and the animal is still twitching, Ḥizkiyya says: There is no prohibition against eating its limbs. Rabbi Yoḥanan says: There is a prohibition against eating its limbs. Rabbi Elazar said: Take that opinion of Rabbi Yoḥanan in your hand and accept it, as Rav Oshaya teaches a baraita in accordance with his opinion.

As Rav Oshaya teaches (Tosefta, Oholot 2:1): In the case of a Jew who slaughtered a non-kosher animal for the consumption of a gentile, if he slaughtered it by cutting two simanim or the majority of two simanim, and the animal is still twitching, the animal imparts impurity of food; but so long as it is twitching it does not impart the impurity of animal carcasses.

A limb that separates from this twitching animal is considered like a limb that separates from a living animal, and as such it imparts the impurity of a carcass. And flesh that separates from this twitching animal is considered like flesh that separates from a living animal, and as such it does not impart impurity. And it is prohibited for the descendants of Noah to consume the flesh that separates from this twitching animal, and this prohibition applies even after its soul departs. This ruling of Rav Oshaya is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥanan.

The Gemara cites the continuation of the Tosefta: In the case where a Jew slaughtered a non-kosher animal for a gentile’s consumption, if he slaughtered it by cutting only one siman or the majority of one siman, and the animal is still twitching, the animal does not impart the impurity of food because the slaughter was invalid. Similarly, if he did not perform a valid slaughter but rather stabbed the animal, the animal has no impurity whatsoever while it is still twitching.

And similarly, in the case of a gentile who slaughtered a kosher animal for the consumption of a Jew, and the animal is still twitching, the animal imparts the impurity of food because it is considered to be food, but so long as it is twitching it does not impart the impurity of an animal carcass.

A limb that separates from this twitching animal is considered like a limb that separates from a living animal, and as such it imparts the impurity of a carcass. And flesh that separates from this twitching animal is considered like flesh that separates from a living animal, and as such it does not impart the impurity of food. And it is prohibited for the descendants of Noah to consume the flesh that separates from this twitching animal, and this prohibition applies even after its soul departs.

If the gentile slaughtered the kosher animal by cutting only one siman or the majority of one siman, and the animal is still twitching, the animal does not impart impurity of food because the slaughter was not valid. Similarly, if he stabbed the animal rather than slaughtering it properly, it has no impurity whatsoever.

If a gentile partially slaughtered a kosher animal in a place that does not render the animal a tereifa, i.e., unfit for consumption due to a mortal wound, e.g., he cut half of the windpipe, and then a Jew came and completed the slaughter, the animal is fit for consumption.

But if a Jew slaughtered the animal, either in a place that renders the animal a tereifa, e.g., he cut the majority of the windpipe, or in a place that does not render the animal a tereifa, e.g., he only partially cut the windpipe, and then a gentile came and completed the slaughter, his slaughter is not valid.

The baraita continues: One who wishes to eat from the meat of a slaughtered animal before its soul departs may cut an olive-bulk of meat from the area of its slaughter, the neck, and salt it very well, i.e., more than is normally required, and rinse it very well in water to remove the salt and blood, and then wait until the animal’s soul departs, and then eat it. Both a gentile and a Jew are permitted to eat it because the prohibition against eating a limb from a living animal is not applicable in such a case.

The Gemara notes: This baraita supports the opinion of Rav Idi bar Avin, as Rav Idi bar Avin said that Rav Yitzḥak bar Ashyan said: One who wants to be healthy should cut an olive-bulk of meat from the area of the slaughter, and salt it very well and rinse it very well, and then wait until the animal’s soul departs, and then both a gentile and a Jew are permitted to eat it.

§It was previously taught in the baraita that if a Jew slaughtered a non-kosher animal for a gentile’s consumption, or a gentile slaughtered a kosher animal for a Jew’s consumption, that animal imparts impurity of food when it is twitching after the slaughter. With regard to that halakha, Rabbi Elazar raises a dilemma: What is the halakha in such a case if one interrupted the slaughter or pressed on the knife during the slaughter? Do these acts, which normally invalidate slaughter, also invalidate this slaughter, or does the slaughter in this case not have to fulfill all of the halakhic requirements of valid slaughter in order to render the slaughtered animal as food with regard to imparting the impurity of food?

A certain elder resolved this dilemma and said to him: Rabbi Yoḥanan said as follows: This case requires a valid slaughter in every detail, just like a Jew slaughtering a kosher animal. The Gemara clarifies: To what requirement does valid slaughter just like a kosher animal refer? Rav Shmuel bar Yitzḥak said: It is referring to the requirement of examining the knife before the slaughter.

Rabbi Zeira asked Rav Sheshet: If a non-kosher animal slaughtered by a Jew is twitching under the same roof as a corpse, and the animal swallowed items before being slaughtered, what is the halakha with regard to those swallowed items that are inside the animal? Is the animal considered to be living and therefore it should save these items that are swallowed inside it from the impurity transmitted by the corpse to all items under the same roof? Or is the animal considered to be dead and therefore the items become impure?

Rav Sheshet said to Rabbi Zeira: Since it is established that such an animal is considered to be dead and imparts impurity of food, is it possible that it saves those items inside it from impurity? Certainly it does not. Rabbi Zeira said to him in response: It is also established that such an animal does not impart impurity of carcasses and is considered to be a living animal in that regard. How is it possible that the animal does not save those items inside it from impurity?

Abaye resolved the dilemma and said: It is proper to treat this case stringently. Therefore, such an animal does not save the items that are swallowed inside it because it imparts impurity of food. But one who engages in bestiality with such an animal is liable because the animal does not impart impurity of a carcass and is considered to be living in that regard.

§The mishna teaches that Rabbi Yehuda says: With regard to the meat residue attached to the hide after flaying that was collected, if there is an olive-bulk of it in one place it imparts impurity of an animal carcass, and one who contracts impurity from it and eats consecrated foods or enters the Temple is liable to receive karet for it. Rav Huna says in explanation: This halakha is applicable only when a halakhically competent person collected the meat residue in one place, but not if the meat residue was collected by a child or without human intervention. By collecting it in one place, the person indicates that he considers it to be food.

And Rav Huna says: In a case of two pieces of flesh of an animal carcass, each measuring half an olive-bulk, that are attached to the hide, the hide nullifies them, as the hide does not impart the impurity of a carcass. Consequently, these pieces do not impart impurity either.

Talmud - Bavli - The William Davidson digital edition of the Koren No=C3=A9 Talmud
with commentary by Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz Even-Israel (CC-BY-NC 4.0)
אדם סלומון
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